TIMELINE – a brief timeline to aid contextualisation of events. Part 2
1700 – 1776
1712 Slaves in New York City revolt. 19 slave executions follow
1702–13 ‘The War of the Spanish Succession’ between England and an alliance of France and Spain, was known in the Americas as ‘Queen Anne’s War’. It was fought in three areas Florida/ Carolina, New England and what is now south eastern Canada. Like other Inter-European wars of the 18th century, it involved several Indigenous Nations and massacres, e.g. the Apalachee massacre of 1704. The Peace of Utrecht, which ended the war, assigned Britain the asiento contract, which gave British slavers permission to sell slaves in Spanish America, and so greatly increased Britain’s share of the European slave trade. 1739- 43 The Guerra del Asiento (or The War of Jenkins’ Ear) was fought in part to defend the asiento contract and fed into The War of the Austrian Succession.
1741 New York Revolts
1744-48 The War of the Austrian Succession between European powers was known in the Americas as King George’s War
1754 – 63 The French and Indian War ends with firstly, The Treaty of Paris (France ceded its claimed colonial territories including: parts of what is now Canada and the Ohio and Mississippi valleys), and, secondly, George III’s Royal Proclamation which creates a western boundary for English colonisation in North America.
1763- 66 Pontiac’s War
1769 Forefathers Day started in Plymouth Massachusetts
1775 – 1900
1775 – 83 ‘American War of Independence’/ ‘American Revolution’ involving Indigenous Nations. British defeat in the war included its First Nation allies, notably the Iroquois Confederacy, who, together with loyalist colonists, were dispossessed. Many moved to ‘Upper Canada’ and some First Nations allied to the British were, ‘allocated’ land there.
1787 Northwest Ordinance – a colonization procedure involving military occupation of Indigenous Nation
1790 – 95 The Ohio Indian War
1500 – 1800 In the 16th century, more than five million Natives people lived in the conterminous United States area. By the nineteenth century, that number had been reduced 90% to 600,000
1791 – 1804 Haitian Revolution ends slavery in the former French colony of Saint-Domingue, the western part of ‘La Isla Espanola’
1803 the Louisiana Purchase – 828,000 square miles (2,144,520 square km) claimed by France sold to the US Government, which doubled the size of the United States
1807 British Slave Trade Act outlawed slave trading in the British Empire, but slave smuggling continues
1808 United States bans the importing of slaves of African heritage, but smuggling continues.
1810 – 13 The Northwest Indian War
1813 – 14 The Creek War
1812 – 15 War between Britain & Canada and the USA that involved Indigenous Nations
1817 – 19 First Seminole War
1700 – 1820 Drop in population of West Africa in the slave taking zone estimated at 5 million (i.e. 20% of 1700 figure)
1820 Missouri Compromise – Missouri is admitted to the Union as a slave state, Maine as a free state. Slavery is forbidden in any subsequent territories north of latitude 36o 30′.
1822 South Carolina Freed slave Denmark Vesey attempts a rebellion in Charleston. 35 participants are hanged.
1823 US Supreme Court ruling in the case of Johnson & Graham’s Lessee v. M’Intosh used the Doctrine of Discovery to reach its decision.
1830 Removal Act
1831 Virginia Slave preacher Nat Turner leads a two-day uprising against whites, killing about 60 people. Nat Turner was eventually caught and hanged.
1831 In the case of the Cherokee Nation v Georgia, the US Supreme Court ruled that Indigenous Nations were ‘domestic dependent nations’.
1831 Slave revolt in Jamaica (20,000 slaves took part) greatly hastened the abolition of British slavery
1833 Slavery Abolition Act outlawed slavery in the British Empire
1835 – 42 Second Seminole War
1847 Residential boarding schools for First Nation children in Canada started. Ended 1996
1846-48 Mexican-American War. Defeated Mexico yields an enormous amount of territory to the United States
1855 – 58 Third Seminole War
1856 William Bradford’s ‘Of Plymouth Plantation’ published
1860 Bureau of Indian Affairs start residential boarding schools for children of Indigenous Nations in USA.
1862 Homestead Act – 300,000,000 acres appropriated from Indigenous Nations
1862 Pacific Railroad Act – nearly 200,000,000 acres appropriated from Indigenous Nations and transferred to private companies
1862 Dakota War
1863 Emancipation Proclamation that all slaves in Rebel territory are free
1864 Sand Creek massacre
1861-65 United States Civil War
1865 13th Amendment to the USA constitution outlawing slavery and ‘involuntary servitude’ passed
1867 Peonage Abolition Act passed directed at this specific form of involuntary servitude practiced against Indigenous Americans, particularly in the New Mexico territory
1871 Indian Appropriation Act enabled the US Government to make laws affecting Indigenous Nations with or without their consent
1871 102,000 census estimate of the size of the ‘Aboriginal population’ in Canada Population estimates for the end of 15th century 500,000 – 2 million
1846 – 1873 9,400 to 16,000 California ‘Indians’ were killed by ‘non-Indians’, most in 370 massacres. Estimated population decline of these ‘Californian’ Nations overall in this period – 100,000
1873 Cypress Hills massacre, Saskatchewan, Canada
1876 Indian Act in Canada severely restricted First Nation peoples’ rights and introduced assimilation regulations.
1879 ‘Carlisle Indian Boarding Schools’ begin in USA
1887 General Allotment Act. As a result of this law and 1898 Curtis Act – the loss of territory of the Indigenous Nations greatly increased. Land designated as Indian decreased from 156 million acres in 1881 to 50 million acres in 1934
1890 Wounded Knee massacre
YEAR USA LAND AREA (Sq Miles) Indigenous population 1800-90
1800 334562 600,000
1810 396990 535,000
1820 502104 471,000
1830 615041 440,000
1840 801294 400,000
1850 946098 365,000
1860 1132024 308,000
1870 1243150 278,000
1880 1488872 244,000
1890 1812484 228,000
1492 – 1900 it is estimated that in this period in the Americas there were in total, 2.5 to 5 million indigenous slaves, of which 147,000 – 340,000 were enslaved in North America
1900 – 2018
1871-1921 The British Crown ‘entered into’ 11 ‘numbered treaties’ with several First Nations in Canada, which resulted in large losses of land of these Nations in Northern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and British Columbia. The treaties were for the spread of European settlements, the railway system and resource extraction.
1924 Indian Citizenship Act granted citizenship to about 125,000 of 300,000 indigenous people in the United States
1934 Indian Reorganisation Act
1937 Columbus Day gained federal status in the USA
1948 Native Americans who were granted citizenship rights under the 1924 Act but denied it under state laws, gain citizenship.
1970 The practice of having a day of mourning on Thanksgiving Day on Cole Hill, Plymouth Massachusetts started. United American Indians of New England (UAINE) continue to organise a day of mourning every Thanksgiving Day on Cole Hill.
1982 a walkout in the UN by African Nations at a Spanish and Vatican proposal to celebrate Columbus’s ‘encounter’ in 1492
1992 Columbus quincentenary
2000 the head of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) formally apologized for the agency’s participation in the “ethnic cleansing” of Western tribes.
2007 400-year anniversary commemoration of the establishment of the Virginia Colony titled Jamestown 2007
2007 200-year anniversary commemoration of the abolition by Britain of the slave trade
2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) Four counties vote against its adoption – Australia, Canada, New Zealand, USA. Australia agreed to the declaration in 2009, New Zealand in 2010, USA 2011, Canada in 2016.